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Lecture 1 - Two properties that relate to electron...

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Overview of Bonding – Lecture 1
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Two properties that relate to electron attraction: ionization energy e.g. Na Na + + e - electron affinity e.g. S + 2 e - S -2 Both apply to isolated atoms!
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in a molecule, we use Electronegativity ( χ ) The greater the electronegativity of an atom in a molecule , the more strongly it attracts electrons to itself
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Electronegativity increases. .. C N Si P 2.5 3.0 1.8 2.1 ...going up or to the right in the table
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Electronegativities
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Electronegativities Metals have low χ Non-metals have higher χ
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Electronegativity Difference 0 3.5 Covalent Polar Covalent Bond Ionic Bond 2.0 0.5 χ  Determines the type of bond χ B χ A ∆χ = χ A - χ B
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for example. .. Cl-Cl 3.0 3.0 diff = 0.0 covalent
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for example. .. HCl 2.1 3.0 diff = 0.9 polar covalent
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for example. .. H-O-H 2.1 3.5 diff = 1.4 polar covalent
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for example. .. NaCl 0.9 3.0 diff = 2.1 ionic
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Na + Cl - COVALENT POLAR IONIC COVALENT
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Lecture 1 - Two properties that relate to electron...

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