Lecture 2 - TheoriesofChemicalBonding Lecture2 Review...

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Theories of Chemical Bonding –  Lecture 2
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Review Hybrid Orbital Theory - sp, sp 2 , sp 3 , sp 3 d, sp 3 d 2 hybrids - made from atomic s, p and d orbitals - accounts for all electrons AND gets the shape right
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σ σ σ π σ σ “Double Bond” sp 2 sp 2 sp 2 1s (2p – 2p)
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Steric Number 2, e.g. C 2 H 2 C C H H an s-orbital + a p-orbital ± 2 sp hybrids (leaving two un-used p-orbitals on each C)
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Steric Number 2, e.g. C 2 H 2 sp 2 Two leftover p-orbitals!
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σ (sp-sp) σ (sp-1s) σ (sp-1s) π (2p-2p) π (2p-2p) C 2 H 2
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Summary Charge Hybridization Clouds 2 sp 3 sp 2 4 sp 3 5 sp 3 d 6 sp 3 d 2
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Orbital Overlap Model: Localized overlap of atomic valence shell orbitals Hybrid Orbital Theory: Localized overlap of hybrid and atomic orbitals Molecular Orbital (MO) theory: Orbitals delocalized over entire molecule
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Molecular Orbital Theory atomic orbitals : atoms MO : molecules
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positive overlap  a bonding  molecular orbital   + - nuclei electron density
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A bonding MO: + 1s 1s σ 1s + + + +
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Negative overlap is also possible. ..   + - nuclei electron density a node An “antibonding” molecular orbital
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An antibonding MO: - 1s 1s σ 1 s + + + + Node
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Bonding results in stability 1s + 1s 1s - 1s + + + + Energy + + 1s 1s
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MO diagrams e.g. H 2 start with the isolated atoms: Energy H H
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build the MO’s: σ 1s σ * 1s H H Energy
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put electrons in the MO’s: σ 1s σ * 1s H H Energy
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course CHEM 1001 taught by Professor Burk during the Fall '09 term at Carleton CA.

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Lecture 2 - TheoriesofChemicalBonding Lecture2 Review...

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