Ch. 19 - Tindall/Shi Ch 19 Tindall/Shi Ch 19 New Frontiers...

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Unformatted text preview: Tindall/Shi Ch. 19 Tindall/Shi Ch. 19 New Frontiers Copyright: W.C. Nicholson, Ph.D. Kennesaw State University Impact of the Civil Impact of the Civil War/Reconstruction Major issues of the late 19th century – Racial reconciliation Freedmen’s Bureau Black codes Social practices Political discrimination – Economic growth Business expansion Territorial growth Currency reform Tariffs Interstate commerce Impact of the Civil Impact of the Civil War/Reconstruction (con’t) – Constitutional unity/legal reform Preservation of the union Limitation of states’ rights – Social reform Women’s suffrage Temperance Education Immigration Native American policy The Post­War South The Post­War South Impact of Civil War End of slavery/new economic system Physical devastation/human toll Land reform Voluntary segregation Black codes Racial conflict The New South The New South Henry Grady “Prophet of the New South” His vision: – Democracy – Small farms – Diversified industries – Better education – Bustling cities The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Expected results: – Material wealth – Sectional peace – Racial harmony – Economic growth Atlanta, 1906 The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Implementing Grady’s vision Economic growth/business expansion – Textiles (NC/VA), tobacco (NC), coal (AL), lumber (GA) Agricultural diversification/stagnation – cotton, sugar cane, vegetables – sharecropping/tenancy/crop lien system – Problems: lower crop prices, rural stagnation, perennial debt, illiteracy The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Political Change ­ The Bourbon Redeemers Characteristics – Democratic white “leaders” of the New South – entrepreneurs – alliance with northern capital/conservatives – diverse group ideologically Tom Watson of Georgia The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Achievements: – cut government spending – reduced public debt – established boards of agriculture/public health – established public colleges – allowed black voice in government The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Disenfranchising Blacks: – new attitudes – racism/violence – lynching – Mississippi Plan (1890) – Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) – “Jim Crow” laws Homer Plessy The New South (con’t) The New South (con’t) Black Response: left South wore “mask of deference/discretion constructed separate culture displayed entrepreneurship/pride established black women’s club The Washington­DuBois Debate The Washington­DuBois Debate B. T. Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise” Speech ­ 1895 (Nystrom, pp. 144­46) – – – – – “cast down your buckets” work from bottom up accommodate white power structure vocational training established Tuskegee Institute – – – – “ceaseless agitation” complete equality access to higher education criticized Washington’s approach W.E.B. DuBois, “Of Mr. B. T. Washington” (Nystrom, pp. 149­51) The New West The New West General Characteristics: – a mythic region – diversity (geographical, human/ethnic, occupational) – visions of freedom & opportunity – realities of greed & exploitation The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) Settlement & Migration – heaviest after 1850 – mostly men – many immigrant groups – sizable African­American population – role of women more democratic more independent hugely outnumbered The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) Occupations: – Miners 1840s­90s 1849 Gold Rush Get in, get rich, get out Ghost towns The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) – Cowboys 1860s­80s 40,000 Vacquero Cattle drives Hard life Impact of refrigeration/barbed wire End of open range The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) – Farmers 1870­90s Many problems: weather, insects, poor soil, lack of water/trees, high interest rates, low crop prices, isolation Led to populist movement of 1890s Indian Wars/Policy Indian Wars/Policy Constant wars on the “frontier” Gov’t response: push Native Americans into “reservations” Brutality/deception of Euro­Americans Indian retaliation Pres. Hayes acceptance of responsibility 1887 Dawes Severalty Act Assimilation mov’t Reformers Reformers Helen Hunt Jackson (1830­1885) A Century of Dishonor (1881) Ramona (1884) Appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1882) End of the Frontier End of the Frontier Great Oklahoma Land Rush (1889) 5 million acres 50,000 people participated; “Boomers” & “Sooners” Bugle sounded at noon & the rush was on Had to literally “stake” your claim “tent” towns arose overnight Guthrie, OK emerged within 100 days with 10,000 people The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) Frederick Jackson Turner’s thesis “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” (1893) End of the open range by 1890 History of America one of westward movement; has shaped American personality The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) Positive traits – – – – – More democratic More individualistic More practical/pragmatic More mechanically­minded More open – – – – More restless More violent Less educated More intolerant Negative traits The New West (con’t) The New West (con’t) Loewen’s “Red Eyes” (Ch. 4) ...
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