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Ch. 20 - Tindall/Shi Ch 20 Tindall/Shi Big Business&...

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Unformatted text preview: Tindall/Shi Ch. 20 Tindall/Shi Big Business & Organized Labor in the Gilded Age Copyright: W.C. Nicholson, Ph. D. Kennesaw State University The Gilded Age The What was the “Gilded Age?” Name of Mark Twain’s/Charles Dudley Warner’s 1873 book Last quarter of 19th century Thirst for wealth; get rich quick schemes; corrupt politicians; party strife Collusion between business & politics Rise of Big Business Rise 1876 Centennial Exposition • Philadelphia General Trends A Land Made for Industry • Natural & human resources Big Business in the Gilded Age (con’t) (con’t) Age of mass production corporations industrial combination technical innovation standardization entrepreneurship gov’t support Big Business in the Gilded Age (con’t) (con’t) Second Industrial Revolution U.S. & Germany Nationally integrated transportation/communication system Electrical power Application of science to industry Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise American Ingenuity • • General trends Inventors A. G. Bell (telephone) Thomas A. Edison (light bulb) George Westinghouse (AC current) Did A.G. Bell Invent the Telephone? Did Much controversy over this point Several other claims to the “first” telephone: • Antonio Meucci (1871): recognized by Congress in June 2002 http://www.telephonetribute.com/telephone_inventors.html • Elisha Gray: Filed for patent same day as Bell but was 39th on the list and Bell was 5th • http://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/mysteries/telephone.html • Granville T. Woods, the “black” Edison: holds more than 60 patents for various inventions Did A.G. Bell Invent the Telephone? Telephone? Meucci Gray Woods Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise The Railroad Revolution • Jay Gould & the consolidation movement; drive for profit • financing the RRs; gov’t land grants and speculation • transcontinental lines Jay Gould • Pennsylvania RR ­ $400 million; 55,000 employees by 1870s Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise • Problems of rapid RR growth Profit in building, not operating Panic of 1873 Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise Social Darwinism • Herbert Spencer • William Graham Sumner Spencer Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise Entrepreneurship John D. Rockefeller (oil) Andrew Carnegie (steel) • Gospel of Wealth J. P. Morgan (banking/finance) Ward; Sears & Roebuck Rise of Big Business (con’t) Laissez­faire & the Supreme Court • • • Protect business interests Supremacy of property rights over all others Mandate for corporate consolidation New Business Techniques • Horizontal and vertical integration • The corporation Professional management Limited liability Capital accumulation Rise of Big Business (con’t) Rise Reactions to Big Business Personal • tycoons v. the common man • monopolies Ida M. Tarbell & Standard Oil Congressional • the Interstate Commerce Commission (1887) • Sherman Anti­trust Act (1890) Judicial What happened to Jacksonian America? • Laissez faire • Social Darwinism supported economic inequality Labor Conditions & Organization Organization General work trends: • • • Distribution of wealth Wages, hours, conditions, benefits Child labor Labor Conditions & Organization (con’t) (con’t) Early attempts at labor organization • • • • Conflicting attitudes toward property & labor The Molly Maguires RR strike of 1877 Anti­Chinese movement Dennis Kearney (Calif.) • Workingman’s Party Yellow peril Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Dennis Kearney Labor Conditions & Organization (con’t) (con’t) • National Labor Union (1866­72) • Knights of Labor (1869­1886) Uriah Stephens Terence Powderly All workers welcome • • Anarchism Haymarket Affair (1886) Chicago International Harvester plant Labor Conditions & Organization (con’t) (con’t) • The A. F. L. (1886) Samuel Gompers Skilled workers only • Homestead strike (1892) Pittsburgh • Pullman strike (1894) Illinois • Mother Jones Samuel Gompers Labor Conditions & Organization (con’t) (con’t) • Socialism Eugene Debs the I.W.W. • Big Bill Haywood Eugene Debs Big Bill Haywood ...
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