Ch. 25 - Tindall/Shi Ch 25 Tindall/Shi Ch 25 America and...

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Unformatted text preview: Tindall/Shi Ch. 25 Tindall/Shi Ch. 25 America and the Great War Copyright: W.C. Nicholson, Ph.D. Kennesaw State University Background Factors Background Factors What contributed to the outbreak of war in Europe in 1914? Industrialization Imperialism Nationalism/Jingoism Alliance system Technology/Arms Race Wilson and Mexico Wilson and Mexico 1911 Revolt Porfirio Diaz (1876­1911) fled Francisco Madero occupied Mexico City Madero murdered 1913 – Victoriano Huerta seized power But Wilson supported Venustiano Carranza & ordered American ships to blockade Veracruz Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Diaz Huerta Carranza Villa Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Apr. 1914 ­ Huerta forced out; American troops withdrew Carranza & followers occupied Mexico City Pancho Villa harassed Carranza; attempted to provoke American intervention by attacking American settlement in New Mexico Ploy worked; Wilson sent in 11,000 troops in 1914 under Gen. John Pershing Pershing Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Wilson and Mexico (con’t) Pershing chased Villa around for over a year; withdrew in 1917 on eve on American entry in WW I Carranza passed new, liberal constitution & Mexico stabilized Wilson’s intervention earned the U.S. title: “Colossus of the North” Problems in Europe Problems in Europe Background Politics Arms race Ethnic nationalism The spark: Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, heir to Austro­Hungarian throne , by Serbian nationalist group (Black Hand) Kicked in the alliance system: Triple Alliance: A­H, Germany, Italy (Turkey) Triple Entente: G.B., France, Russia (Serbia, Japan, U.S.) Archduke Ferdinand World War I Begins World War I Begins Schleiffen Plan Rapid German invasion of France & G.B. via Belgium Designed to avoid 2­front war Didn’t work as planned due to heavy Belgian resistance & fortifications Allowed G.B. & Russia to mobilize The Course of War The Course of War WW I a total war: Involved not just military but civilian resources/hardships/casualties Battle of Verdun (Feb. – Dec. 1916) 32 million artillery shells expended Battle of the Somme (July 1916) 20,000 Brits died in one day! Images of Verdun Images of Verdun Images of Somme Images of Somme The Course of War (con’t) The Course of War (con’t) Trench warfare: 475 miles long (eastern France) Conditions Diary reading The Course of War (con’t) The Course of War (con’t) Role of technology (led to huge casualties) Machine guns Gas Submarines Airplanes Tanks Flame throwers The War at Home The War at Home America’s reactions: Initially, declared neutrality America’s huge immigrant (German, Irish, & SE European) population favored Central Powers America’s business interests and historical attachments favored Allies U. S. loaned $ to both sides The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) Sinking of the Lusitania May 7, 1915 128 Americans died Role of contraband (Declaration of London) Wilson ordered Germans to abandon policy of unrestricted submarine warfare blatant violation of neutral rights/freedom of the seas Arabic Pledge (Sept 1915) Sussex Pledge (March 1916) The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) Debate over Preparedness Progressives, pacifists, rural S & W against war Business/industrial interests in East & munitions companies for war Military appropriations bills passed by Congress Income taxes increased The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) Election of 1916 Wilson (D) v. Charles Evans Hughes (R) Wilson won narrow victory with slogan: “He Kept Us Out of War” Ordered increased military spending The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) Last efforts for peace “peace w/o victory” German intransigence Wilson broke diplomatic relations with Germany (Feb 3, 1917) Zimmermann telegram (Feb. 1917) Bolshevik revolution forced Russia withdrawal March 1917: American merchant ships sunk U.S. at war to make the “world safe for democracy!!” The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) America’s early efforts: Morale boost Convoy system Minefields A.E.F. (Pershing) Conscription (Selective Service Act of 1917) The War at Home (con’t) The War at Home (con’t) Changing American society: Committee of Public Information under George Creel anti­German propaganda campaign at home victory gardens food to Allies Food Administration under Herbert Hoover War Industries Board under Bernard Baruch transforming the economy creating a labor force Impact on blacks & women Great Migration female employment/suffrage U.S. Becomes Decisive Power U.S. Becomes Decisive Power The Western Front War focuses on France after Russian withdrawal Battle after battle pushed Germans back to the East Successful American offensive in Sept 1918 struck decisive blow Armistice signed; WW I ended at 11 AM on 11­11­1918. The Fight for Peace The Fight for Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points (Jan, 1918): Goals Keep Russia in war Provide noble cause for war Drive wedge b/t Central Powers Plan for peace 1. open diplomacy 2. freedom of the seas 3. removal of trade barriers 4. reduction of armaments 5. self determination 6. League of Nations The Fight for Peace (con’t) The Fight for Peace (con’t) Versailles Conference Attended personally by Wilson 14 Points came under attack Many compromises/sacrifices made Progressive coalition at home unraveled in Wilson’s absence Democrats lost majorities in Congress in 1918 mid­term elections Many unhappy with Versailles Treaty (June 28, 1919) Hall of Mirrors Hall of Mirrors The Fight for Peace (con’t) The Fight for Peace (con’t) League of Nations To ensure collective security/international stability Use of arms last resort only A “moral” body – each member one vote Council (9 nations); Secretariat (in Geneva); World Court The Fight for Peace (con’t) The Fight for Peace (con’t) Failure of League at Home Versailles Treaty defeated by Senate Bitter blow to Wilson Suffered a stroke & incapacitated Transition from War to Peace Transition from War to Peace Spanish Flu pandemic The economy Race riots Red Scare Social disillusionment ...
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