Chapter 30 - Tindall/Shi Ch. 30 Tindall/Shi Ch. 30 America...

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Unformatted text preview: Tindall/Shi Ch. 30 Tindall/Shi Ch. 30 America in World War II Copyright: W.C. Nicholson, Ph.D. Kennesaw State University America’s Early Battles America’s Early Battles Setbacks in the Pacific Japanese expansion in SE Asia Pearl Harbor (Dec ’41) Doolittle Raid (Apr ’42) Coral Sea/Midway Setbacks in the Atlantic German sub “wolfpacks” Mobilization at Home Mobilization at Home Selective Service a success 1.4 million in service by July ’41 15 million would serve total Economic conversion war powers acts: nationalization of industries conversion, production, conservation scientific research increased gov’t spending Mobilization at Home (con’t) Mobilization at Home (con’t) Financing the War raised taxes borrowed $ sold war bonds nat’l debt increased 6x end of unemployment Economic Controls O.P.A. Stabilization Act (’42) prices only increased 30% Social Effects of the War Social Effects of the War Development in the West 8 million migrated there between 1940­50 dizzying growth in western cities housing shortages common racial friction as blacks moved west Role of Women 200,000 in WACS & WAVES 6 million entered workforce – “free a man for service” impact on families Social Effects of the War (con’t) Social Effects of the War (con’t) African­American Participation 1 million served Tuskegee airmen (600 pilots) Fair Employment Practices Commission increased membership in NAACP demand for full equality led to racial violence Social Effects of the War (con’t) Social Effects of the War (con’t) Hispanic/Native American Participation Bracero program 200,000 legal immigrants; about the same came illegally 25,000 Native Americans served in war gov’t aid cut by New Deal programs role of economic necessity & patriotism Social Effects of the War (con’t) Social Effects of the War (con’t) Internment of Japanese Executive Order 9066 Fear of espionage/racial prejudice 110,000 in U.S.; 80,000 in Canada forced into relocation camps Property confiscated & sold by gov’t 60% of internees were American citizens 1/3 under age 19 1983: U.S. gov’t granted $20,000 to those still living Allied Drive toward Berlin Allied Drive toward Berlin War aims/strategy Stop Hitler­ biggest priority & threat to western hemisphere Supreme commanders appointed North Africa Campaign MacArthur in Europe; Nimitz in the Pacific Montgomery v. Rommel Battle of the Atlantic Allied convoys v. German subs Role of Allied technology Allied Drive toward Berlin Allied Drive toward Berlin (con’t) Sicily & Italian Campaign Strategic Bombing of Europe Gen. Patton & tank warfare Mostly German military/industrial targets Tehran Conference (Fall ’43) The Big 3; FDR, Churchill, Stalin Planned invasion of France to open 2nd front; Soviet pledge to help in war against Japan; agreement to establish U.N. Allied Drive toward Berlin Allied Drive toward Berlin (con’t) D­Day Invasion – Operation Overlord June 6, 1944 Biggest amphibious operation in military history 16,000 paratroopers 4,000 ships 150,000 troops (57,000 American) 1000s of planes Problems Bad weather Heavy German anti­aircraft fire & machine guns Misplaced troops Rough seas Allied Drive toward Berlin Allied Drive toward Berlin (con’t) Impact of D­Day Invasion 5,000 Allied dead on 1st day But, 1 million Allied troops poured into France on way to Berlin Rommel committed suicide after attempting to assassinate Hitler FDR died suddenly ­ April 12, 1945 Mussolini executed ­ April 28, 1945 Hitler committed suicide ­ April 30, 1945 Berlin fell to Soviets – May 2, 1945 VE Day – May 8, 1945 The War against Japan The War against Japan Leapfrogging in the Pacific Battles in the Philippine Sea & Leyte Gulf Yalta Conference (Feb. ’45) from New Guinea towards Japan FDR; Churchill; Stalin Plans for post­war Germany & formation of U.N. Soviet occupation of Poland Concessions of territory to Soviets in E. Asia Potsdam Conference & Declaration (July ’45) Truman; Stalin; Churchill Use of atomic bomb against Japan The War against Japan (con’t) The War against Japan (con’t) Manhattan Project Reasons to use the atomic bomb Military Bureaucratic inertia Economic Strategic/diplomatic Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) Robert Oppenheimer its head “Little Boy” 80,000 deaths immediately; 60,000 more by year’s end John Hersey document “Hiroshima” Nagasaki (August 9, 1945) “Fat Man” 36,000 deaths Images of Hiroshima Images of Hiroshima The War against Japan (con’t) The War against Japan (con’t) August 14, 1945 – Japan surrendered September 2, 1945 – formal surrender signed on USS Missouri with Gen. MacArthur WW II over The Final Ledger The Final Ledger The Numbers 70 million served worldwide 50 million dead worldwide 25 mill military 25 mill civilian 400,000 total American deaths compared to 20 million in Soviet Union Impact on American Life increased productivity/debt/prosperity/innovation expansion of fed gov’t Democratic control of White House & Congress new era of American power in the world The Final Ledger (con’t) The Final Ledger (con’t) Impact on the World Physical destruction of Europe/Asia Rise in technology Campaigns of genocide/racism Role of propaganda ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course HIST 2112 taught by Professor Papageorge during the Fall '07 term at Kennesaw.

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