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Cardiovascular Fitness & Disease
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Cardiovascular Disease The leading cause of death in US (~40% deaths, 2005) Disease of any aspect of CV system: heart, blood or vessels Major Forms incl. high blood pressure, congenital heart disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and artherosclerosis
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Coronary Heart Disease The most predominant form of CVD, single largest killer in US Causes a narrowing of coronary arteries (atheroscelrosis), restricting blood flow to heart muscle (myocardium), leading to tissue death Angina is a pain associated with this closing of coronary arteries ( ~2/3 closed) Heart Attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs with a total blockage of coronary artery, resulting in tissue death
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Heart Attack Warning Signs Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in chest lasting 2+ minutes Pain spreading to shoulders, neck, arms Dizziness, fainting, sweating, nausea, shortness of breath Seek medical attention immediately
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Stroke Similar to processes of CHD, but effecting the cerebral-vascular system of the brain. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of the arteries due to build up of deposits along arterial wall, can lead to clots forming, blocking blood flow to tissue= tissue death Primary risk factor for stroke is High Blood Pressure, the higher the BP, the greater the risk of stroke
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Stroke Risk Factors & Warning Signs Risk Factors: HBP, smoking, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol intake, obesity, elevated blood cholesterol, age, race, heredity Warning Signs: Dizziness, temporary weakness or numbness on one side of the face, arms or leg, temporary loss of speech or vision Seek medical attention immediately
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High Blood Pressure aka Hypertension Both a risk factor and a disease in itself Blood pressure is the amount of force exerted against the walls of arteries during the contraction (systolic) and relaxed/filling (diastolic) phases of a heart beat. Diagnosed after repeated measurements above optimal levels Below 130/85 ideal, 140/90 or greater presents concern Risk factors include heredity, obesity, alcohol consumption, sodium sensitivity, age, race, caffeine consumption, sedentary lifestyle.
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Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Prevention is the key, lifestyle habits determine our susceptibility Heredity does play a slight role, but mostly in that we inherit our parents’ lifestyle While gender, age, race and heredity can’t be changed, most important risk factors are preventable and reversible.
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Smoking The number one cause of CVD. 2.5 times greater than average risk of CVD Smokers more likely to die of CVD than cancer The more you smoke, the greater the risk Heart must work harder to supply oxygen to cells Blood lacks oxygen due to CO hijacking hemoglobin, which is what transports 02 in blood.
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