Chapter%204-%20Muscular%20Flexibility - Chapter 4 Chapter...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Chapter Muscular Flexibility Overview Overview Flexibility: The ability of a joint to move freely Flexibility: through its full range of motion through – Static vs. Dynamic Stretching: Moving the joints beyond the Stretching: accustomed range of motion accustomed Estimated that 80% of all low-back problems are Estimated result of improper alignment of spine & pelvis due to inflexibility and weak abdominal muscles due As flexibility decreases due to age & inactivity, As inactivity potential of musculoskeletal injury increases. potential Benefits of Adequate Flexibility Benefits Promotes healthy muscles and joints – Improves circulation Improves – Improves elasticity of muscles and connective tissue around Improves joints, enhancing freedom of movement/ROM joints, Makes activities of daily living (turning, lifting, and Makes bending) easier to perform bending) Reduces risks of musculoskeletal injury due to Reduces decreased ROM decreased Improves and maintains good postural alignment Helps prevent low-back and other spinal column Helps problems problems Reduces muscle tension, soreness, spasms associated Reduces with stress with Understanding & Preventing Low-Back Pain Understanding Important to maintain balance of strength and Important length of muscles crossing the hips/pelvis to length control pelvic tilt. control – Tilting of pelvis affects lower lumbar vertebrae of the Tilting spinal column spinal Stabilization of the Pelvis (figure 4.1) – Front: Abs and Hip Flexors – Back: buttocks, low back, hamstrings – Maintaining “long/strong” muscles of this region Maintaining assures good postural alignment, decreased risk injury injury Incorrect and Correct Pelvic Alignment Another Vicious Cycle of Inactivity Another Activity level is a key factor affecting flexibility – As one becomes less active, muscle flexibility As diminishes (as does strength/endurance) diminishes – As this occurs, so goes ability to bend, turn or reach, As impacting daily activities impacting – Increased risk for musculoskeletal injury Pain is often associated with weak/inflexible Pain muscles, and limited activity levels muscles, A simple stretching routine can break this cycle simple by helping regain ROM, active lifestyle by The Flexibility Debate The Recent research has challenged the benefits of Recent flexibility exercise as it relates to sport performance performance – In essence, it was determined that static stretching In prior to performance may be detrimental, does not decrease risk of injury decrease – Rise in “Dynamic/Active Warm-Up” routines that Rise mimic movements of sport/activity mimic This does not suggest that one should NOT This actively pursue increasing of maintaining flexibility as part of an overall health and wellness program. wellness Factors Affecting Flexibility Factors Genetics, Age, Gender Genetics, Physical activity – Sedentary=muscles lose elasticity, tendons & ligaments Sedentary=muscles shorten shorten – Active= muscles maintain elasticity, ROM Joint structure: muscles, tendons, ligaments, skin muscles, Joint – Muscles can undergo elastic elongation Muscles elastic – Tendons, joint capsule undergo plastic elongation Tendons, plastic – Key is to focus on lengthening muscles, tendons and joint Key capsule for improved flexibility capsule Injury/trauma: deformities and scar tissue Adipose tissue: increases resistance to movement, Adipose restricting ROM restricting Body temperature (can increase or decrease by as Body much as 20%) much – warm= greater movement, cold=less movement *Warm up muscles prior to stretching Common Methods of Stretching Common Ballistic (dynamic) stretching: Exercises typically done Ballistic with jerky, rapid, bouncy movements. – Precautions are necessary to avoid injury – controlled movement can be effective with health muscle tissue Slow-sustained stretching: Exercises in which the Slow-sustained muscles are lengthened gradually through a joint’s complete range of motion complete – allows the muscle to “relax” by over-riding our protective stretch reflexes stretch – Stretch to the sensation of tightness, but not discomfort – Hold 15-30 seconds, repeated 2-4 times Stretching Methods that inhibit the protective stretch reflex: stretch Active Isolated Stretching (AIS) – – Involves active contraction of the opposing muscle prior to stretch Involves active Gently stretch muscle of no more than 2 seconds before releasing to Gently avoid stretch reflex avoid – Repeat 2-3 times – May require partner or rope/elastic band to assist Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): – Involves Isometric contraction of muscle being stretched followed Involves Isometric by a relaxation phase by – partner or band/rope provides resistance for isometric contraction then partner used to “passively” stretch muscle for participant. used – Attain and hold a mild stretch, then push against resistance for 4-5 Attain seconds, gradually extending stretch over 3-5 times gradually – Can also incorporate active contraction of opposing muscle (AIS) Alternative Methods of Stretching; Integrating Mind-Body Control Integrating Pilates combines muscle control, coordination and stretching activities under light resistance to enhance strength and flexibility of muscles enhance Yoga utilizes variety of position/poses in combination with controlled breathing to optimize benefits related to muscle tissue, circulatory system, stress, etc. system, Tai Chi is a martial art form that focuses on slow, controlled movements to enhance the flow of “chi” or energy through the body, and has been shown to have many health benefits been Determining Your Flexibility Determining Lab 4.2 – Modified sit-and-reach test – Total body rotation test – Shoulder flexibility test When performing assessments, it’s When advised you warm up the muscles first, and stretch lightly prior to test and Never stretch to the point of discomfort or Never pain in completing these tests pain Modified Sit-and-Reach Test Modified Measures hip Measures and trunk flexibility flexibility Modified Modified protocol accounts for arm/leg length discrepancies discrepancies Starting position for the modified sit-and-reach test Modified Sit-and-Reach Test Modified Hold the final Hold reach for two seconds seconds Record final Record stretch in inches inches Modified sit-and-reach test Total Body Rotation Test Total Measures body Measures rotation rotation Test is performed on Test either right or left side either Shoulder Rotation Test Shoulder Measures shoulder flexibility by simply 1. Raise one arm above head and reach Raise down your back as far as possible down 2. Move other arm behind back and reach Move upward as far as possible upward 3. Try to overlap fingers/hands as much Try as possible, estimating length of overlap overlap 4. Do both arms Guidelines for Developing Flexibility Guidelines *No hard, set rules here- just general info Mode – Static/Dynamic, Static/Dynamic, Active/Passive methods focusing on the muscles connected to every major joint in the body joint Intensity – Stretch to the point of Stretch tightness or mild discomfort, not pain. not Repetitions – Repeat up to 3-5 times – Hold the final stretched Hold position for extended period of 10 seconds + period Not true with AIS, PNF Frequency – Ideally daily – After 6-8 weeks of After stretching, maintain achieved flexibility with 2 to 3 days per week days Contraindicated Exercises Contraindicated Most strength and flexibility exercises are relatively safe Most to perform to Some exercises (contraindicated) can be hazardous if Some performed incorrectly performed Contraindicated exercises may cause harm because of Contraindicated excessive strain on muscles and joints; in particular the spine, lower back, knees, neck, or shoulders spine, A llist of contraindicated exercises are provided in ist the textbook the ...
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