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chapter%205%20Nutrition - Chapter 5 Nutrition for Wellness...

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Chapter 5 Nutrition for Wellness
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Nutrition and Wellness Nutrition is a key component of overall health and wellbeing Proper nutrition means that a person’s diet supplies: 1. Essential nutrients 2. Energy requirements Too much or too little of any nutrient suggests imbalanced nutrition, which may contribute to health problems, increase risk for chronic diseases.
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Typical US diet is too high in… Fat and cholesterol = Cardiovascular Diseases Salt = High blood pressure, CVD, Stroke Sugar = excess amounts contributes to obesity, which is risk factor for diabetes (myth: excess sugar does not cause diabetes) Calories = large portions and poor choices contribute to obesity, a major risk factor for chronic disease Too low in Fiber- shown to help “cleanse” the body, reduce risk of cancers
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Nutrition: the science of food Nutrients: Substances found in food that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues Essential Nutrients : Fuel Nutrients : Carbohydrates, fats, protein (Macronutrients) Regulatory Nutrients : vitamins, minerals, water ( Micronutrients) Nutrient Density= Nutrients: Calories Nutrient dense= Lots of nutrients, fewer calories (“nutritious”) Energy dense= High calories, low nutrients (“junk food”) Calorie = measure of the potential energy associated with food when metabolized with oxygen and a measure of energy required for physical activity
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Calories per Gram of Food
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Recommended Amounts These are considered general guidelines, and may vary depending on your size, age, activity levels, health conditions and wellness goals…but it is recommended that: Carbohydrates should make up 50-60% of your total daily calories Fats should make up <30% of your total daily calories Proteins should make up ~15% of your total daily calories
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Carbohydrate (50-60% daily cals) Major/preferred source of energy (4 calories/gram). Body converts carbs to glucose , which is the fuel that gives you energy and sustains life. Found in breads, cereals, fruits, veggies, milk and other dairy products, as well as foods with “added sugars” Two types: Simple Carbs (aka sugars ): provide calories but no real nutritional value “added sugars”: rec <12 tsp per day, avg person ~20, 20 oz coke= 15tsp Complex Carbs : a combination of Starch plus Fiber , therefore providing nutritional value in the form of fiber.
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Simple Carbohydrates= sugars Glucose- most common natural sugar in foods we eat All carbs/sugars are broken down to glucose by body Primary source of energy, taken from the bloodstream or stored in muscle and liver as glycogen for later energy use or Excess amounts contribute to obesity. Fructose- natural sugar found in fruit and honey Lactose- natural sugar found in milk and dairy products Table Sugar is Sucrose (fructose + glucose) High Fructose Corn Syrup- sweetener made from corn, found in many processed/sweet foods and drinks (cheaper, longer shelf-life), generally recognized as safe.
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