Classical - to make the reasonable choice. The Classical...

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Classical: (Essentialist, Normative, yet Non-deterministic) Focus: act vs actor Deviance is a choice Human being is a rational actor Socio-Historical Context Enlightenment Science Rationality Free Will Power of Reason Reform Change 1. Population 2. Demise of feudalism and rise of capitalism. Industrialization. Urbanization. 3. Shift from community==>individual 4. Nation state: law and order==>Social Contract ( Thomas Hobbes ), political individual--common good. 5. Philosophy: Utilitarianism 6. Religion: demise of the power of the centralized church. 7. Scholasticism--reason--choice--common good, sin equals the failure
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Unformatted text preview: to make the reasonable choice. The Classical School Cesare Beccaria : " On Crimes and Punishment " (1764) Responds to corruption, abuse and discretionary power of the judge. Control ACTs, not actors. Rational punishment for making rational choice to violate the social contract. Hedonistic Psychology--pleasure vs. Pain Legislature--Laws and punishment. Judge--guilt Deterrence: rationally calculated control. Swift, Sure and Severe. Focus on the Law (instrument of deterrence, can't change people) Beccaria's Ideas are embodied in the French Penal Code of 1791...
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Classical - to make the reasonable choice. The Classical...

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