Essentialism - picture" • Macro-Level theorists look...

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Essentialism ( Positivism ) versus Constructionism Essentialism: phenomena have distinct and consistent essences. True, real, objective and universal. Constructionism: categories/essences are social vs. natural. Change, variation based on perspective and interests of the observer. Definitions do not equal absolute reality. Categories have meaning only within the context of the criteria of the classification scheme that has been socially constructed. Moderate Constructionism--there are limits. Categories have elements of arbitrariness and are fuzzy, but they are based on something "objective." i.e. define "alcoholic" Constructionist Approaches to Deviance Marco-Level v. Micro-Level units of analysis for examining phenomena 1. Macro-Level - (big, broad, structural) Macro-Level theorists look at society through broad lenses, to see the "big
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Unformatted text preview: picture". • Macro-Level theorists look at how large-scale structural conditions, i.e. economic and political institutions, structure the patterns and significance of daily life for people in a given social system. o Karl Marx is a macro-level theorist because he studied the larger structural units, economic systems, to understand how economic structures influence behavior and belief in other social structures, and across different types of societies. o See also: Durkheim-Anomie. 2. Micro-Level - (small, face-to- face interactions) • Micro-Level theorists focuses on individual processes such as face-to-face encounters people have. • All "types of person" theories are Micro-Level theories. See: Labeling theory ....
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