Modifications:•1810-: premeditation, mitigating circumstances•1843: M'Naughten Case--insanity--defect, inability to rationally weigh act and consequences.Control:•Penitentiaries: reflect on behavior. (another view)•Rational--sentence length adjusted to severity of the crime.•Seed for the development of positivistic theories-bio/psych. Prison as laboratory, total control, observe the individual and manipulate/change--return to a focus on causation.Classical perspective today: Rational Choice TheoryThe Evolution of Classical Theory: Rational Choice, Deterrence, Incapacitation and Just DesertIn seeking to answer the question, "Why do people engage in deviant and/or criminal acts?", many researchers, as well as the general public, have begun to focus on the element of personal choice. An understanding of personal choice is commonly based in a conception of rationality or rational choice. These conceptions are rooted in the analysis of human behavior developed by the early classical theorists,
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