THE ARTICULAR DISC - column (spine), and the thoracic cage...

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THE ARTICULAR DISC In three of the synovial joints of the human body, a special addition is seen. This addition is known as an articular disc. The joints with articular discs are the temporomandibular joint of the lower jaw, the sternoclavicular joint (at the sternum (breastbone)), and the ulnocarpal joint of the distal end of the forearm. a. An articular disc is a fibrocartilage plate. It is inserted between the articular surfaces of the bones of a synovial joint. In this way, it divides the synovial space into two spaces. b. Joints having an articular disc are capable of having several different motions occurring at the same time. Mechanically, there are really two joints together here. THE HUMAN SKELETON GENERAL a. The human skeleton is a collection of individual bones articulated (joined) together. b. The major subdivisions of the skeleton are the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton. THE AXIAL SKELETON The axial skeleton is the central framework of the human body. It includes the skull, the vertebral
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Unformatted text preview: column (spine), and the thoracic cage (chest or rib cage). a. Vertebral Column (Spine) . The vertebral column, or spine, is made up of a vertical series of bony blocks called vertebrae. These vertebrae are joined together in such a way as to form a semiflexible rod. The spine is the central support for the trunk, yet allows trunk movements. (1) Anatomically and functionally, a typical vertebra (figure 4-4) is constructed of two major parts: (a) The vertebral body is a drum-shaped cylindrical mass. Its superior and inferior surfaces are flat. Its function is primarily weight-bearing. (b) The neural arch extends posteriorly, arching over and protecting the spinal cord of the central nervous system. From the neural arch are several processes. These processes serve as attachment areas for the trunk muscles. They also act as levers during various trunk motions....
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