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The Liver and Gall Bladder - the gall bladder is no longer...

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The Liver and Gall Bladder The liver produces and sends bile to the small intestine via the hepatic duct, as illustrated in Figure 8. Bile contains bile salts, which emulsify fats, making them susceptible to enzymatic breakdown. In addition to digestive functions, the liver plays several other roles: 1) detoxification of blood; 2) synthesis of blood proteins; 3) destruction of old erythrocytes and conversion of hemoglobin into a component of bile; 4) production of bile; 5) storage of glucose as glycogen , and its release when blood sugar levels drop; and 6) production of urea from amino groups and ammonia.
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The gall bladder stores excess bile for release at a later time. We can live without our gall bladders, in fact many people have had theirs removed. The drawback, however, is a need to be aware of the amount of fats in the food they eat since the stored bile of
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Unformatted text preview: the gall bladder is no longer available. Glycogen is a polysaccharide made of chains of glucose molecules, as shown in Figure 9. In plants starch is the storage form of glucose, while animals use glycogen for the same purpose. Low glucose levels in the blood cause the release of hormones, such as glucagon , that travel to the liver and stimulate the breakdown of glycogen into glucose, which is then released into the blood(raising blood glucose levels). When no glucose or glycogen is available, amino acids are converted into glucose in the liver. The process of deamination removes the amino groups from amino acids. Urea is formed and passed through the blood to the kidney for export from the body. Conversely, the hormone insulin promotes the take-up of glusose into liver cells and its formation into glycogen....
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