Urinary System - and vagina. The uterus provides the site...

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Urinary System As it functions, the body produces wastes, which must be disposed of. One type of waste is nitrogen-containing waste (such as urea and uric acid), which results from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids by the body cells. The urinary system removes the nitrogen- containing wastes from the blood and flushes them from the body in urine. This system, often called the excretory system, is composed of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Other important functions of this system include maintaining the body’s water and salt balance and regulating the acid-base balance of the blood. Reproductive System The reproductive system exists primarily to produce offspring. Sperm are produced by the testes of the male. Other male reproductive system structures are the scrotum, penis, accessory glands, and the duct system, which carries sperm to the outside of the body. The ovary of the female produces the eggs, or ova; the female duct system consists of the uterine tubes, uterus,
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Unformatted text preview: and vagina. The uterus provides the site for the development of the fetus (immature infant) once fertilization has occurred. Maintaining Life Necessary Life Functions Now that we have introduced the structural levels composing the human body, the question that naturally follows is: What does this highly organized human body do? Like all complex animals, human beings maintain their boundaries, move, respond to environmental changes, take in and digest nutrients, carry out metabolism, dispose of wastes, reproduce themselves, and grow. We will discuss each of these necessary life functions briefly here and in more detail in later chapters. Organ systems do not work in isolation; instead, they work together to promote the well-being of the entire body. Because this theme will be emphasized throughout this book, it is worthwhile to identify the most important organ systems contributing to each of the necessary life functions...
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