9 - specific answer to a question (e.g., is there an...

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9. The Basic Issues and Areas of Philosophy Metaphysics (the study of the nature of reality): What is the difference between appearance and reality? What is a person? Are human beings really free? Is there a God? Does life have a meaning or purpose? Epistemology (the study of knowledge): What does it mean to know something? How is knowledge different from belief or opinion? Axiology (the study of values): o Ethics: Is There a Real Difference between Moral Right and Wrong? o Social & Political Philosophy: Why Do We Have Social and Political Obligations? o Aesthetics: What Is Art? What is Beauty? Logic (the study of reasoning): How Can One Tell Whether An Argument Is Justified, Believable, or Convincing? 10. The Philosophic Attitude In contrast to experimental sciences like physics or psychology, philosophy is less concerned with facts about the world or why people believe what they do. Instead, it investigates what those facts mean and whether people's beliefs are justified based on reasoned argument. Getting a
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Unformatted text preview: specific answer to a question (e.g., is there an afterlife?) is thus not as important, from a philosophic standpoint, as determining whether a proposed answer to the question makes sense. 11. How Philosophy Is Different From Science, Law, and Religion Philosophy challenges the assumptions of science. It does not stop with what things there are; it also examines what it means to be and questions whether thinking in scientific terms is itself justified. Philosophy questions whether social beliefs and laws are justified. The sheer fact that a society has legitimated a practice through law does not insulate it from philosophic examination and critique. Unlike religion, philosophy does not depend on faith. Instead, it emphasizes understanding and defending one's beliefs. Philosophy does not aim at commitment or salvation....
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