Adams1 - Adams's Divine Command Theory of Moral Obligation...

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Adams's Divine Command Theory of Moral Obligation A. Empirical necessities 1. Prior to recent work by Saul Kripke, Hilary Putnam and others, many philosophers assumed that all necessities are matters of definition or of logic: mathematicians necessarily do mathematics, bachelors necessarily are unmarried, it is necessarily the case either that there is a pink elephant or there isn't one. 2. Kripke and Putnam argued that some necessities depend on the identity, origin or nature of things: Mark Twain and Samuel Clemens are necessarily identical, Mark Twain and Benjamin Franklin are necessarily distinct, water is necessarily composed of H2O molecules, etc. 3. In the case of "natural kinds", we look for the underlying structure that causally explains the superficial similarities among our standard samples. Once we've found such a structure, we can attribute that structure to the natural kind as its "real essence". Thus, being composed of H2O molecules explains why our standard examples of water (the stuff in lakes, oceans, rain drops, etc.) have the superficial properties (clear, tasteless,
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