Argument 2: Is the Idea of the Given Ultimately Coherent? One way in which one might try to support the idea that some beliefs can be non-inferentially justified - that is, that one can be justified in believing some things even if one cannot offer any evidence in support of the beliefs in question - is by appealing to the idea that some states of affairs are immediately given, that the mind is directly presented with some things. Thus it is often claimed, for example, that one is directly acquainted with one's own present experiences, and possibly with other mental states, such as thoughts. Talk about something being "immediately given", or "directly presented" to the mind, or about one's being "directly acquainted" with some state of affairs is, admittedly, not easy to cash out. Is it, for example, a matter of causal immediacy? That may be part of it - though even that is not clear. But if causal immediacy is involved, it seems clear that that is not the whole story. For the idea
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