Foundationalism 1. Foundationalism: classic versus moderate versus weak. What is common and moderate foundationalism: (1) The existence of noninferential knowledge, or noninferentially justified beliefs; (2) All other knowledge is justified on the basis of noninferential knowledge, or all other justified beliefs are justified on the basis of noninferentially justified beliefs. 2. Classic foundationalism: Indubitable and infallible starting points, plus deductive inference. 3. The main problem with classic foundationalism is that the link between what we are noninferentially justified in believing, and what we are inferentially justified in believing, cannot, it would seem, be deductive in nature. (Brain in vat type arguments. Bishop Berkeley's philosophy. Puppets controlled by some sort of deity, or powerful extra-terrestrial being, in the case of beliefs about other minds. Gosse's hypothesis in the case of knowledge of the past.) 4. Moderate foundationalism. This may differ from classic foundationalism in either or both of
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