Gettier - Gettier's Counterexamples to the Traditional...

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Gettier's Counterexamples to the Traditional Analysis The traditional analysis of knowledge as justified true belief is exposed, as Edmund Gettier shows in his famous article, to counterexamples, since there are cases where a person has a justified true belief that something is the case, but where that does not count as a case of knowledge. (Alvin Goldman, in a footnote on page 152 of an article in Pojman's anthology describes Gettier as simply reminding us of a point that had been noticed much earlier - in 1912 - by Bertrand Russell. Gettier's point, however, does not seem to be explicitly present in Russell's discussion, since what Russell says is not that something can be a case of a justified true belief, and yet not be a case of knowledge, but rather: "Thus it is clear that a true belief is not knowledge when it is deduced from a false belief." But this leads rather quickly to Gettier's point, by means of the additional claims that false beliefs can be justified, and that what follows from a justified claim is itself justified.)
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