How do We Know that the Causal Principle is True? Traditionally, there have been three answers to this question: 1. Empirical support -- we know the principle by induction upon observed instances of caused facts. 2. Indispensable presupposition of all empirical enquiry -- if we do not assume the causal principle, we cannot know anything on the basis of observation or induction. 3. Natural light of reason -- we know the principle naturally and directly, without need for any further reason or evidence. These three answers are not mutually exclusive. The strongest case for the principle of causality makes use of all three. We could take the combination of (2) and (3) to give some slight or weak support for the principle. These two considerations alone might not put us in a position to know that the causal principle is true, but they might make it reasonable for us to believe and use the principle. Once we have given the principle some positive status, however weak, we can use the existence of empirical support (answer 1) to pull ourselves up by our bootstraps. That is, once we
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