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Summing Up - of consciousness such as beliefs The indirect...

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Summing Up (1) Provided that one can be noninferentially justified in believing that one has memory beliefs,  the use of hypothetico-deductive method can serve to justify the claim that specific memory  beliefs are very likely to be accurate. (2) One advantage of this approach is that what memory beliefs are justified at a given time does  not depend either upon one's having any sensory experiences at a given time, or upon what  memory experiences one is having at a given time. (3) The skeptic can challenge this justification by arguing that noninferentially justified beliefs  should be restricted to beliefs about one's present states of consciousness , and that one does not  have noninferentially justified beliefs about any of one's present mental states that are not states 
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Unformatted text preview: of consciousness - such as beliefs. The indirect realist's account is, accordingly, incomplete, and needs to be supplemented by a defense of the claim that one can have noninferential knowledge of, or noninferentially justified beliefs about, one's own present beliefs. One way in which one might try to deal with this latter issue was briefly set out above. (4) As was argued in the last section, there appear to be a number of ways in which direct realism is exposed to difficulties that do not apply to the indirect realist's account of the justification of beliefs about the past....
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