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Temporality - there is a sufficient reason that explains...

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Temporality There are different conceptions of the relationship between causation and time. The first holds that causes are always earlier than their effects. This is the diachronic view (dia-chronic means through time). The second holds that causes are always simultaneous with their effects. This is the synchronic view (synchronic = together in time). Finally, one could hold the achronic view, the view that there is no necessary relationship between causation and time. It is possible to combine all three views, by holding that there are three different kinds or forms of causation: diachronic, synchronic and achronic. Modality Some philosophers, especially those influenced by neo-Platonism, have held that causes necessitate their effects, that is, given the existence of the cause, the effect must happen: there is no possibility of the effect failing to follow. This position is held explicitly by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and by Leibniz. Leibniz formulates a principle of sufficient reason: for every fact,
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Unformatted text preview: there is a sufficient reason that explains why that fact had to be so, rather than any other way. Many others have held that causes make their effects possible or likely, but do not bring about their effects with necessity. Someone who believes in a strong version of divine freedom must hold this view. God's essence may have inclined him to create a certain kind of world, but nothing necessitated that he do so. Some of the Arab philosophers were very explicit on this point. Holding that time is eternal but that the universe was created at a particular moment, the Arab philosophers of the Kalam tradition were faced with the problem of explaining why God created when he did, rather than earlier or later. Their answer is that nothing necessitated God's creating when he did. God's being is the cause of the existence of the world at the point in time of creation, but nothing necessitated that this effect occur at this time....
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