The Peculiar Nature of the Causal Laws that Must Be Postulated Consider laws of Newtonian physics - such as Newton's Second Law of Motion - F = ma - or his Law of Gravitation - F = Gm1m2/r2. Such laws involve quantitative properties, and they serve to relate an enormous number of properties falling under the relevant determinables. Thus one does not need a different law specifying the acceleration of a body for each different combination of force and mass: a single law covers all cases. Compare this with the case of laws dealing with the causal dependence of qualia upon brain states. Phenomenologically considered, qualia appear to be simple properties, not reducible to one another, nor to any simpler properties. If this is right, then for every type of quale there will have to be a corresponding, basic law. Such basic laws, moreover, will be very different from the sorts of laws postulated by physics, all of which connect very simple properties. The laws that relate brain states to qualia, on the other hand, will be laws according to which extremely
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