Generalizing Galilean Relativity to Include Light: Special Relativity We now come to Einstein’s major insight: the Theory of Special Relativity. It is deceptively simple. Einstein first dusted off Galileo’s discussion of experiments below decks on a uniformly moving ship, and restated it as : The Laws of Physics are the same in all Inertial Frames.Einstein then simply brought this up to date, by pointing out that the Laws of Physics must now include Maxwell’s equations describing electric and magnetic fields as well as Newton’s laws describing motion of masses under gravity and other forces. (Note for experts and the curious: we shall find that Maxwell’s equations are completely unaltered by special relativity, but, as will become clear later, Newton’s Laws do need a bit of readjustment to include special relativistic phenomena. The First Law is still o.k., the Second Law in the form F= mais not, because we shall find mass varies; we need to equate force to rate of change of momentum ( Newton understood that, of course—that’s the way he stated the law!). The Third Law, stated as action
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