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Copernicus saw as counter instances what most of Ptolemy

Copernicus saw as counter instances what most of Ptolemy -...

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Copernicus saw as counter instances what most of Ptolemy's other  successors had seen as puzzles in the match between observation and  theory.  Anomalies are usually not considered counter-instances but rather simply  puzzles.  New paradigms come from people new to the field or young or both.  Once it has achieved the status of a paradigm a scientific theory is  declared invalid only if an alternative candidate is available to take its  place.  Scientific revolutions are inaugurated by a growing sense, again often  restricted to a narrow subdivision of the scientific community that an  existing paradigm has ceased to function adequately in the exploration of  an aspect of nature to which the paradigm itself had previously led the 
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