critique of Pure Reason

critique of Pure Reason - presupposed), and since it could...

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critique of Pure Reason Lecture notes, March 3, 1997: Freedom vs. Determinism The arguments of the Thesis and Antithesis of the First Antinomy are supposed by Kant to employ a common assumption, that the world is a thing in itself. This assumption is denied by transcendental idealism, which is then claimed to be the key to the solution of the conflict. Without the assumption, neither side is justified in its claims. If the world were a thing in itself, Kant maintained, it would be true that all past times are given (or as he put it more cautiously, "presupposed") in the present time. The existence of the world in the past times is a necessary condition for the existence of the world at this time, or else the present is the beginning of the world and there is no necessary condition for present existence at all. Thus every time is either follows an eariler time or is a first beginning. Since the whole series of time is given (or
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Unformatted text preview: presupposed), and since it could not be given if the series were infinite, the world has a beginning in time. On the side of the Antithesis, if the world were a thing in itself, then an empty time is impossible. For the existence of things at any given time must have a sufficient reason, and there is no sufficient reason for the existence of the world at a time preceded by an empty time. According to Kant, this is what drove Leibniz to draw the conclusion that there is no time independently of the world. However, Kant claimed in the Aesthetic that an empty time can be thought. Given this possibility, and the assumption that the world is a thing in itself, the only option open is to claim (against Leibniz) that the world has always existed; its existence in the past is infinite....
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Scheff during the Fall '09 term at Broward College.

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