History IN THE BEGINNING For quite awhile, educated people believed that all things were composed of some combination of the four elements of fire, air, earth, and water. The corresponding human HUMORS were blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Human emotion/behavior was determined by the humor balance resulting in sanguine, irascible, melancholic, and phlegmatic character. Psychology has its roots in philosophy and religion. Aristotle studied dreams, instinct, personality, and energy of the soul. The Greeks were especially interested in mind - body relationships. PHYSIOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY By the 1700s, the course in moral philosophy was the capstone of liberal education. Such a course often evolved into a sort of psychology eventually leading to the notion of moral scientists who would study the individual in relation to sociology and brain physiology. The first U.S. Ph.D. was issued to G. Stanley Hall in 1878 and he opened the first U.S. research laboratory in 1883. In 1879, the first psychology laboratory was established by
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