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It is obvious that the issue revolves around the definition of the word

It is obvious that the issue revolves around the definition of the word

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It is obvious that the issue revolves around the definition of the word "similar." If  the model and target are similar with respect to the controlling variables of interest  then the functional relationship will generalize. If they are similar with respect to  irrelevant dimensions and dissimilar with respect to relevant dimensions, then the  findings will not generalize. If we consider two groups similar because the effect of  interest will generalize, then we cannot turn around and claim that if the groups  are similar then the effect will generalize. This is a tautology. Basing expectation of  generality on naively perceived similarity represents either an unsubstantiated  hope or a tautology, neither of which provide any meaningful help. Simply because  the research was done on primates we are not assured that the functional  relationship will generalize to humans. Simply because the functional relationships 
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