Kant notes that this forced Leibniz into his doctrine of the pre

Kant notes that this forced Leibniz into his doctrine of the pre

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Kant notes that this forced Leibniz into his doctrine of the pre-established harmony, discussed in the last lecture. Another consequence of the purely internal status of the property of things is Leibniz's famous principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles. Two individual concepts can represent different things only if there is some difference in the internal properties they represent. Suppose we try to entertain the concepts of two raindrops whose size is exactly the same and whose micro-structure is identical. There would be no basis for difference, on Leibniz's principle. If it be objected that they can be located in different places, Leibniz would respond that being in different places is not an internal, but an external property, and hence is no basis for difference. "There are never two beings in nature that are perfectly alike, two beings in which it is not possible to discover an internal difference, that is, one founded on an intrinsic denomination" ( "Monadology,"
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Unformatted text preview: Section 9). What, then, can be said with respect to "external" properties, such as spatial or temporal properties? Leibniz could only conclude that such properties are derivative from or parasitic upon the internal property. "Leibniz conceived space as a certain order in the community of substances, and time as the dynamical sequence of their states. That which space and time seem to possess as proper to themselves, in independence of things, he ascribed to the confusion in their concepts" (A276/B332). This characterization of the concepts of space and time as confused gets us to the heart of Kant's criticisms of Leibniz. Confused concepts, according to Kant's interpretation of Leibniz, are those which are the product of sensibility. Unlike Kant's own view, according to which sensibility is given objects of its own by being affected, Leibnizian sensibility is a faculty which only confuses and distorts the concepts that are found in the understanding....
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