Knowledge is Covariance

Knowledge is Covariance - place food in one goal box and...

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Knowledge is Covariance  Things in nature change. The lights in a room may be on or off, a rat may  be in the right or the left arm of a maze, a silent person may begin to  speak. We flip the light switch, we place food in one goal box, we ask a  person a question. Often, however, things are not so dichotomous: Dawn  changes darkness to light in a continuous fashion. The number of soft  drinks consumed per day varies, and people speak in a variety of rates,  amplitudes, and languages and say a variety of things. There are both  continuous changes and dichotomous changes.  We also see relationships in nature; we flip the light switch and the lights go on, we 
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Unformatted text preview: place food in one goal box and the rat goes there, we ask a person a question and they answer. Additionally, we may not see simple discrete cause-effect relationships, but rather covariance. As consumption of cigarettes increases, incidence of cancer increases, but everyone smoking does not get cancer, and many people get cancer who have never smoked. Some relationships are very strong like light switches and illumination level (often labeled "cause") while others are weaker like cigarette smoking and cancer (often labeled simply "covariance")....
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