Pepsi can would extract a behavior Z from xx% of the American population in 1950, while in 1993 following exposure to changed contingencies in the culture, the same event extracts Z behavior from yy% of the population. Time scale groupings are applicable. Some cultural practices once established reverse only with a new culture, such as after a major social disruption. This is much like personality, once established it reverses only following relatively substantial disruption or only across progeny. This adaptation is the adaptation of a system of groups, each containing homogeneous elements such as a group of humans and a group of trees, etc. The prototypical system is an ecosystem contained within a sealed glass sphere. A characteristic of a system is that it is virtually closed in that little or no input occurs to the whole system. It is important to keep in mind that these conceptual categories do not exist in
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