Suppose that you want to measure the effect of the caffeine in coffee without measuring the effect o

Suppose that you want to measure the effect of the caffeine in coffee without measuring the effect o

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Suppose that you want to measure the effect of the caffeine in coffee  without measuring the effect of drinking the coffee itself. Weighing a  liquid with a pan balance is an apt metaphor for this experiment. Liquid  alone cannot be put on one side of the balance. It will run off the edge of  the pan. To measure the weight of a liquid, you must have the liquid in a  container. The container is an unwanted but unavoidable aspect of  weighing water. It is a confound in that you only want to know the weight  of the water. In order to weigh just the water, an exactly equivalent  container without the liquid must be placed on the other pan in order to  remove the effect of the container on the weight of the liquid in the  container on the other pan. Only the difference between the two pans (i.e.,  water only) affects the weight indicator (i.e., dependent variable). If you 
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This note was uploaded on 11/09/2011 for the course PSY PSY2012 taught by Professor Scheff during the Fall '09 term at Broward College.

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Suppose that you want to measure the effect of the caffeine in coffee without measuring the effect o

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