Your independent variable

Your independent variable -...

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Your independent variable (P) can be thought to cause the change in the dependent  variable (S) only  if  all  factors cancel and are proven irrelevant. Anything that  changed and was not corrected for (i.e., Q + R) may be the actual cause and does  lead to the possibility of alternative explanations for an obtained result.  Variables that you are not explicitly testing must be kept constant. Remember that  the idea of an experiment is to reduce or eliminate alternative explanations for  what you are demonstrating. If you allow potentially relevant variables to fluctuate  in an uncontrolled fashion you cannot be sure what caused the effect. Was it the  result of the change which you deliberately caused or was the effect the result of the  other confounded changes? You are left with very little that you can say with  confidence. A solution for the cafeteria example would be to stand with no one else 
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Your independent variable -...

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