You could also explicitly balance the two groups

You could also explicitly balance the two groups -...

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You could also explicitly balance the two groups. For example, you could  have two basketball teams play several games switching players after each  game until they ended each game in a tie. This procedure would explicitly  balance the groups with respect to basketball playing ability. You could  then give the treatment to one team to assess its effects on basketball  playing. For the IQ testing example the coffee confound could be explicitly  balanced by moving the coffee drinkers around until both groups had the  same mean IQ. Then you could administer the treatment of interest to one  group, with the assurance that the two groups were equal with respect to  the effects of coffee on IQ. With balancing there may not be any equivalent  individuals in the two groups, e.g., Group 1 has IQ 200 and 100 while  Group 2 has IQ 150 and 150. In the pan balance example this would be 
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