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Unformatted text preview: very difficult to see only the relationship between some very specific input and some very specific behavioral output. The organism is receiving many other inputs, has a long history of interacting with the environment, and has many organismic factors affecting the output. In addition, the organism is always doing many many things. It never does only one isolated thing. Luckily, an approach is available which isolates just the input and output factors in which you are interested. The approach is based on the realization that subtraction removes all factors that are the same and leaves only those factors that are different....
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- Fall '09