Unless you have perfect knowledge

Unless you have perfect knowledge - very difficult to see...

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Unless you have perfect knowledge, research is required in order to know  whether or not a variable was effective. Without complete knowledge, you  must gather information, interpret the results, and make a decision.  Given that you are taking a generally deductive or inductive approach, you  then must design your research so that you are most likely to arrive at the  truth. This requires that you exclude both confounds and chance as  plausible explanations for your results. Otherwise, you really have nothing  credible to offer the research community.  An experiment is a method of exposing and understanding the cause of an  effect. It must be remembered, however, that any candidate is not  necessarily the "true" cause, and you are in search of the "true" cause. It is 
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Unformatted text preview: very difficult to see only the relationship between some very specific input and some very specific behavioral output. The organism is receiving many other inputs, has a long history of interacting with the environment, and has many organismic factors affecting the output. In addition, the organism is always doing many many things. It never does only one isolated thing. Luckily, an approach is available which isolates just the input and output factors in which you are interested. The approach is based on the realization that subtraction removes all factors that are the same and leaves only those factors that are different....
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