Thursday, November 3 Lecture

Thursday, November 3 Lecture - Historical Episodes: (1)...

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Historical Episodes: (2) Downfall of Phlogiston §3.2-3.4
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Tasks for November 3, 2011 Quiz will cover only 3.1-3.6 + Galileo’s S idereus Nuncius Review of historical episodes in astronomy: Copernican vs. Ptolemaic Structural Explanation of the Heavens Galileo’s S idereus Nuncius Galileo and the confirmation of the Copernican System More historical episodes: Lavoisier & the downfall of the Phlogiston Theory
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Review of Historical Episodes in Astronomy 1. What alternative models of the structure of the universe were offered before Galileo? 2. Why was the Heliocentric view rejected? Why was the diurnal motion of the Earth rejected by most astronomers during the 16 th century? 3. Which discoveries of Galileo helped increase the evidence in favor of the Copernican model? 1. What are some predictions of the Copernican model that corresponded to Galileo’s observations? 2. Were there any predictions of the Aristotelian
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Newton published his Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica ( Natural Philosophy’s Mathematical Principles ), in 1687, where he submitted the phenomenon of motion (esp. celestial motion) to geometric analysis. What was revolutionary about the Principia was the universal law of gravitation, which was applied to the sublunary, as well as the supra-lunary regions of the heavens.
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Newton’s Laws First Law If there is no force acting on a body, the momentum of that body will remain constant. Second Law If there is a force acting on a body, that body will accelerate by an amount directly proportional to the strength of the force and inversely proportional to its mass. Third Law If one body exerts a force on a second, then the second exerts a force on the first that is equal in strength but in the opposite direction. Universal Law of Gravitation There is an attractive force between any two bodies (called “gravity”) that is directed along a line connecting them, and is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their distance.
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1. When did Halley begin to apply Newton’s laws to a moving body in the heavens? 2. How was Halley able to calculate the path of
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Thursday, November 3 Lecture - Historical Episodes: (1)...

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