Tuesday, November 1 Lecture

Tuesday, November 1 Lecture - Historical Episodes: Galileo...

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Historical Episodes: Galileo & The Copernican Revolution §3.1-3.2
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Tasks for Tuesday, November 1 : §3.1-3.2 Review Questions The Ptolemaic Geocentric View Epicycles, deferents, eccentrics, equants The Copernican Revolution Break Galileo The imperfections of the moon The satellites of J upiter The phases of Venus Video: Galileo and the Telescope
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Review Questions 1. Would a successful crucial experiment resolve a case of underdetermination of a scientific hypothesis? (why or why not?) 2. When scientists develop a new model to account for the evidence, does the agreement between the new model and the data count as evidence in favor of the new model? 3. Is a prediction (in our class) the same as a forecast, telling the future? 4. From Assignment 1 – Exercise 2.1: What is the real world and the model involved?
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For Aristotle, the Earth was a spherical, motionless body at the center of the universe. The planets, the Sun, and the Moon would be assigned spheres of their own – the spheres are responsible for their motion. The last sphere contains all the stars. The Five Planets were: Mercury Venus Mars J upiter Saturn (The next planet, Uranus, was accidentally discovered by Herschel in 1781, and Neptune was discovered in 1846) Aristotle’s cosmology
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The Motion of the Planets Plato already knew that the five planets exhibited a strange behavior. They seemed to make a loop in the night sky. (This happened once every 26 months for the case of Mars) This phenomenon is called “retrograde motion.” Retrograde Simulation
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Like Aristotle, Ptolemy wanted to use some combination of uniform circular motions to account for the observed motions of the planets. Also, Ptolemy wanted to construct a model that would allow astronomers to make accurate forecasts of the future positions of the stars. His model used some new mathematical techniques. Ptolemy’s Cosmology
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Ptolemy’s Cosmology Instead of using spheres, Ptolemy used circles. The planet P moves around the orbit with a uniform speed. But to account for the changes in speed and size observed from Earth, Ptolemy placed the Earth slightly off- center in the planetary orbits, thus producing an eccentric. In addition, Ptolemy stipulated that the
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Tuesday, November 1 Lecture - Historical Episodes: Galileo...

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