Parallelism and Shifts

Parallelism and Shifts - PLEASE WRITE ON YOUR OWN PAPER...

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PLEASE WRITE ON YOUR OWN PAPER Parallelism Structure and Shifts Parallel Structure  means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same  level of importance.  This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level.  The usual way to join parallel  structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as “and” or “or”. I. Words and Phrases With the –ing form of words: Parallel Example:  Mary likes  hiking swimming , and  bicycling . With infinitives phrases: Parallel Example :  Mary likes  to hike to swim , and  to ride  a bicycle. Parallel Example :  Mary likes to  hike swim , and  ride  a bicycle. (Note:  You can use “to” before all the verbs in a sentence or only before the first one.) DO NOT Mix Forms Example 1: Not Parallel :  Mary likes  hiking swimming , and  to ride  a bicycle. Parallel :  Mary likes  hiking swimming , and  riding  a bicycle. Example 2: Not Parallel :   The production manager was asked to write his report  quickly accurately , and  in  a detailed manner. Parallel :   The production manager was asked to write his report  quickly  and  accurately . Example 3: Not Parallel:    The teacher said that he was a poor student because he  waited  until the last  minute to study for the exam,  completed  his lab problems in a careless  manner, and his  motivation  was low. Parallel:    The teacher said that he was a poor student because he  waited  until the last  minute to study for the exam,  completed  his lab problems in a careless manner,  and  lacked  motivation. Parallelism and Shifts 1
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PLEASE WRITE ON YOUR OWN PAPER II. Clauses A parallel structure that begins with clauses must keep on with clauses.  Changing to another  pattern or changing the voice of the verb (from active to passive or vice versa) will break the  parallelism. Example 1: Not Parallel :   The coach told the players  that  they should get a lot of sleep,  that  they should  not eat too much, and  to do  some warm-up exercises before the game. Parallel :   The coach told the players  that  they should get a lot of sleep,  that  they should not  eat too much, and  that  they should do some warm-up exercises before the game. Parallel :   The coach told the players that they should  get  a lot of sleep, not  eat  too much, and  do  some warm-up exercises before the game. Example 2:
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Parallelism and Shifts - PLEASE WRITE ON YOUR OWN PAPER...

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