Explaining Inequality: The Pseudoscience of “Intelligence” Testing • The theme of intellectual inferiority along racial lines has received much public attention since World War II. Earlier in the twentieth century, this theme was applied to White immigrants, who were considered to be very inferior in intelligence to native-born Anglo-Protestants, but in the past few decades, the focus has been on Americans of color. • Arthur Jensen and Richard Herrnstein, along with a few other White social scientists, have alleged that differences in “intelligence test” (IQ) scores are not determined primarily by environmental factors such as education, socialization, racial discrimination, and socioeconomic circumstances, but reflect real genetic differences between Black and White groups. • In the 1930s a number of social psychologists began seriously questioning whether IQ test results could be used as evidence of genetically determined differentials. They showed how White-Black differences in test scores reflected major differences in education, income, and
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Intelligence quotient, General intelligence factor, Arthur Jensen, real genetic differences