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Unformatted text preview: In-Group Vs. Out-Group
The in-groups are the groups which an individual feels loyalty toward. They provide a
sense of identification or belonging. The out group is the group that has individual feels
antagonism toward (Henslin, 1999:152). Cliques, Networks, and Networking
People don't usually communicate with all members of large groups. Cliques are small
factions of close associates that operate within larger groups (Henslin, 1999:154). Social Networks
The links between an individual and his or her cliques, family, close friends and other
acquaintances make up an individual's social network (Henslin, 1999:154). Networking
Sociologists refer to the conscious use or cultivation of networks as networking .
Networking refers to using social networks to establish a circle of friends usually for
career advancement (Henslin, 1999:155). Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Under the topic of Urban Sociology, Toennies (in Appelbaum and Chambliss, 1997:406)
contends that the overall approach that people use to communicate with one another
has shifted from primary types relationships to secondary type relationships. Gemeinschaft
Before the onslaught of industrialization and urbanization human relationships were
characterized by Gemeinschaft. Life was carried out in rural communities.
Relationships were intimate. Citizens in rural areas possessed a strong sense of family.
Powerful folkways and mores kept people in line as did a strong sense of religious
The Amish represent a Gemeinschaft community. ...
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- Fall '10