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Sanctions - espouse real culture is the actual behavior...

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Sanctions – rewards and punishments used to encourage conformity to norms. Formal sanctions may be applied only by officially designated persons. Informal sanctions are applied by most members of a group. Most sanctions are done by oneself mentally to avoid social disapproval. Values – what most people in a society consider to be desirable. They form the basis for norms. (Ex. Value is democracy – norms will ensure personal freedom. A partial list of US values (From sociologist Robin Williams): Achievement and success; Activity and work; Efficiency and practicality; Equality; Democracy; Group superiority. (p. 90). Section 4 --Beliefs and Material Culture Material Culture – how we relate to physical objects Nonmaterial Culture – beliefs, ideas, and knowledge. Beliefs are ideas about the nature of reality. They may be true or false. Material culture can obtain different meaning based on the beliefs, norms and values people hold regarding them. Ideal vs. real culture – Ideal culture is the cultural guidelines that people of a society publicly
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Unformatted text preview: espouse; real culture is the actual behavior patterns of a society. These two things often conflict. Ideal culture represents what a society strives for or wants to be. Section 5 – Cultural Diversity and Similarity All cultures experience change. Why? Discovery— the process of finding something that already exists. Invention – the creation of something new. Diffusion – the borrowing of aspects of culture from other cultures. Social Categories – Cultural diversity that occurs because groups share specific social characteristics. Certain behaviors are associated with certain ages, genders, religions, regions etc. Subculture – a part of the dominant culture, but they differ in some important respects. Ex. Immigrant communities, itinerant farmers. Counterculture – a subculture opposed to central beliefs of the dominant culture. Ex. Goth, hippies, prison, gang....
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