The Organization of Work and Inequality Economic independence is ultimately enhanced for some because their job allows them to experience a great deal of upward mobility. Some individuals do not experience UPWARD mobility. Their jobs are dead-end jobs. On the other hand, some jobs have slots that allow some people to experience upward mobility, but the manner in which promotions are granted is biased. This section addresses blocked opportunities and "old boy " networks. The Power of Organizational Position: Blocked Opportunities Majority groups always develop justifications to explain the inequalities they impose on minority groups. Often religious or biological explanations are involved. Biology might be used to explain stereotypical perceptions that "men are more ambitious, task-oriented, and work involved." Perhaps god my even be invoked to explain why women are "seen as less motivated, less committed, and more oriented toward work based social relationships than to work itself." Obviously we live in the 1990s and educated people recognize such clichés' as trash. There is, however, the possibility that the expected behavior exists at a sufficient level to
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