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4-14_groundwater - Papers 1 and 2 on front and on table...

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Unformatted text preview: Papers 1 and 2 on front and on table Google Earth assignment Google Earth due next Monday, Mar. 8, next 11:59 pm Exam 2 Wed., Mar 10 Pebbles Grain Size Grain Sand Silt Boulders to Pebbles Boulders Sand Sand Silt Silt Clay Clay Clay/Mud Shale Clastic Sed. Rx: Grain size Clastic Sorting Sorting Well-sorted Poorly-sorted Sphericity and Roundness and Grain Shape vs. Sorting vs Sorting Increasing Transportation Rounding Photos from Skinner et al, 2004 5th edition clast Mineralogy= intensity of weathering Remember Bowen’s Reaction Series? Sedimentary indicators Sedimentary Fossil preservation Fossil Low Energy High Energy Stages in life-cycle of sedimentary rocks Streams and Floods: The Geology of Running Water Earth’s moon Fig. 17.02 W. W. Norton Fig. 17.03 abc W. W. Norton Headward erosion Fig. 17.03 d Stephen Marshak Types of drainage patterns (Controlled by what the water flows over) W. W. Norton Fig. 17.04abcd Types of drainage patterns Fig. 17.04abcd W. W. Norton Cotopaxi Volcano, Ecuador Types of drainage patterns Fig. 17.04abcd W. W. Norton Fig. 17.06 W. W. Norton Fig. 17.07 Sometimes rivers don't reach the ocean W. W. Norton. Modified from Chernikoff, 1999 Fig. 17.05 a W. W. Norton Fig. 17.18 a W. W. Norton Base level Niagara Falls Fig. 17.22 b Stephen Marshak Fig. 17.24 a W. W. Norton Fig. 17.16 d W. W. Norton Stream sediments “Meandering” streams Meanders Cut bank point bar point bar Cut bank Braided Streams Alluvial fans Fig. 7.28c © Martin Miller Pp 530-531 Deltas original artwork by Gary Hinks Nile delta Mississippi Delta Amazing Ice: Glaciers Amazing Glaciers: Where are they ? Glaciers Glaciers: What are they made of ? Glaciers What made 250 m 250 2000 m porosity + - Fig. 22.12 W. W. Norton Glaciers move in one of 2 ways: Glaciers Temperate glacier Rounded front due to melting Figure 16.5A Skinner et al 2004 Pre’ de Bar Glacier Italian Alps Glaciers move in either of 2 ways:Polar glacier Glaciers Cliff front due to sub freezing T Figure 16.5B skinner et al 2004 Commonwealth Glacier, Antarctica Glacial Crevasses, New Zealand Glacial Figure 16.18 Skinner et al 2004 Figure Franz Josef Glacier, New Zealand’s Southern Alps Ansel Adams, photographer Glaciers - What do they do ? Outwash Erratic Erratic Till Glaciers - What do they do ? Lateral Moraines Medial Moraines Fig. 22.24 22.24 W. W. Norton. Adapted from Tarbuck and Lutgens, 1996 Tarbuck Lutgens Figure Eskers - ridges of outwash form in sub-ice tunnels Eskers – think river channels under glaciers French alps Glacial landforms Glacial Glacial ice loading - subsidence Glacial Glacier melts - crustal rebound Ice sheet > 50 km diameter - ice loading - subsidence ice 1 km thick ~ 300 m depression bulge can extend > 100 km rebound takes 1’s - 10’s kyrs No Canada is rising ~ 15 No rising mm/yr NYC is sinking ~ 2 mm/yr sinking ...
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