Lecture+7+September+30

Lecture+7+September+30 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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Unformatted text preview: Today in Comparative Politics Measuring democracy Comments on Mondays exam Measuring Democracy In what ways have political scientists made the concept of democracy operational? What are their strengths and weaknesses? Three measures PACL Polity IV Freedom House Przeworski, Alvarez, Cheibub, and Limongi (PACL) Builds on Dahls notion of contestation Democracy is a regime in which those who govern are selected through contested elections. Scope 199 countries 1946 (or independence) to 2000. PACL A country is a democracy if: Chief executive is elected. Legislature is elected. More than one party competes in elections. There has been an alternation in power under identical electoral rules. Otherwise the country is a dictatorship. Nothing in between No such thing as a partial democracy for PACL PACL diverge from Dahl on this point A dichotomy Not a continuum PACL Contestation is very important for PACL. Contestation occurs when an opposition has some chance of winning office via elections. 3 aspects Ex ante uncertainty : outcome of election is not known before it takes place. Ex post irreversibility : the winner of the electoral contest actually takes office. Repeatability : elections occur at regular and known intervals. PACL Contested elections: necessary, but not sufficient, to be a PACL democracy Also need: alternation in power Problem : how to distinguish regimes where Incumbents never lose power because they are popular Incumbents hold elections only because they know they will not lose them. Observationally equivalent cases Botswana Japan Malaysia Mexico Polity IV Scope:184 countries from 1800 to 2003 Annual evaluation of democracy and autocracy Democracy Measure 0 10 Autocracy Measure 0 10 Polity Score = Democracy Measure Autocracy Measure Ranges from 10 to 10 Democracies: 6 10 Autocracies or dictatorships: 10 to 6 Polity IV...
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Lecture+7+September+30 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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