Lecture+17+November+30

Lecture+17+November+30 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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Today in Comparative Politics Institutional Veto Players Federalism Bicameral legislatures Constitutionalism Veto Player Theory Looking ahead… Final Exam College Avenue Main Gym Tuesday, December 22 12 to 3 pm Not in Scott 123! Note the date. The one on the syllabus is incorrect.
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Federalism A federal state is one in which sovereignty is constitutionally split between at least two territorial levels so that independent governmental units at each level have final authority in at least one policy realm. Non-federal states are known as unitary states . Only about 10% of the world’s countries are federal.
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Why Federalism? Two processes: Coming-together federalism Bargaining process Previously sovereign polities voluntarily agree to give up part of their sovereignty. Pool resources and improve collective security or achieve other goals. Holding-together federalism Central government chooses to decentralize its power to subnational governments Goal: diffuse secessionist pressures
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Federalism v . Devolution Devolution : conditional granting by a unitary state of powers to subnational governments with the right retained to unilaterally recall or reshape those powers. Ultimate political power resides in central government in unitary states. Regional governments have no constitutional right to their powers. Useful conceptual distinction De jure federalism = Federalism De facto federalism = Decentralization
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Devolution in the United Kingdom After referenda created regional parliaments for Scotland and Wales, elections to the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Senedd took place in 1999. 1998 ‘Good Friday Agreement’ set up a provincial assembly for Northern Ireland. On four separate occasions, the central government in London has suspended the provincial assembly. Scottish Parliament Welsh Senedd Northern Ireland Assembly
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Devolution in India Looks like a federal state, but constitutionally it is a unitary state that has devolved much power to its states and union territories. National legislature can change boundaries of individual states and even create new states by separating territories from existing ones. President can take over a state’s executive and rule directly through an appointed governor.
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Congruence Congruent federalism : territorial units of a federal state share a similar demographic makeup with one another and the country as a whole. E.g., U.S., Brazil Incongruent federalism : demographic makeup of territorial units differs among the units and the country as a whole. Commonly, based on ethnic or linguistic differences E.g., India, Belgium, Switzerland
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Symmetry Symmetric federalism : Territorial units of a federal state possess equal powers relative to the central government. E.g., U.S.
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Lecture+17+November+30 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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