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September+8+Lecture+2 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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Unformatted text preview: Today in Comparative Politics Announcements for new arrivals The science in political science The comparative method and its problems A quick tour of logic Scientific method Are you registered for a recitation section? Yes, if you are enrolled in the course. Formally, one registers for the section, not the lectures. No extra charge for the lectures No lecture tomorrow Meet your recitation for the first time this week. Required purchases Clark, Golder, and Golder, Principles of Comparative Politics i>clicker personal response system Comparative politics is a subfield of political science. And what is political science? Political science is the study of politics in a scientific manner. Today: flesh out this idea. Political Science Comparative Method Collect observations of the world. Use them to develop general laws or theories about why certain political phenomena occur. Goal: identify causes of political events or phenomena Two conditions central to causation A necessary condition of an event is a circumstance in whose absence the event in question cannot occur. Example : Being at least 30 years old is a necessary condition for being a U.S. senator. Formally, if P implies Q, then Q is a necessary condition for P. If P occurs, then Q occurs. If Q doesnt occur, then P doesnt occur. Necessary Condition Thunder heard Lightning flashes Example: Lightning is a necessary condition for thunder. Two conditions central to causality A sufficient condition is one that, if satisfied, guarantees the statement's truth. Example : A U.S. president's signing a bill enacted by Congress is sufficient to make the bill law. Formally, if P implies Q, then P is a sufficient condition for Q. If P occurs, then Q occurs. If Q doesnt occur, then P doesnt occur. Sufficient Condition Dont pay rent Get yourself evicted Example: Not paying your rent is a sufficient condition for eviction. A Necessary and Sufficient Condition A circumstance in whose absence the event will not occur and in whose presence the event must occur. Y happens if and only if X occurs. The integer is divisible by two. The integer is even. Comparative Method The comparative method is the search through particular cases for necessary and for sufficient conditions for political phenomena. John Stuart Mill, A System of Logic , 1843, proposed two main methods: Method of Agreement Method of Difference Mills methods Method of Agreement when the cases agree on the phenomenon to be explained Method of Difference when the cases differ on the phenomenon to be explained Method of Agreement What causes countries to have democratic governments?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course POLI SCI 790:103 taught by Professor Blair during the Fall '09 term at Rutgers.

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September+8+Lecture+2 - Today in Comparative Politics...

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