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Chloroplasts - The fluid-filled space surrounding the grana...

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Chloroplasts The diagram below illustrates how energy from sunlight is used for the energy requirements of cells. Photosynthesis is a process by which light energy is used to make sugar from CO 2 and H 2 O. The equation that summarizes these reactions is: Energy + 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 In eukaryotes, photosynthesis occurs in chloroplasts . Photosynthetic prokaryotes do not have chloroplasts. The photograph below is an Elodea leaf (X 400). The numerous green structures are chloroplasts. Click on the photograph to view an enlargement. A double membrane surrounds the chloroplast. Chloroplasts contain membranous disk-like structures called thylakoids that are stacked together in larger structures (grana) that resemble stacks of coins (see diagram below). Molecules that absorb light energy (called photosynthetic pigments) are located in the thylakoid membranes.
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Unformatted text preview: The fluid-filled space surrounding the grana is the stroma . Many enzymes needed in photosynthesis are found embedded in the thylakoid membranes and in the stroma. Click here to view the chapter on photosynthesis The diagram below shows a chloroplast that has been cut lengthwise to reveal the interior. Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration refers to the chemical reactions that break down glucose to CO 2 and H 2 O, releasing the energy stored within its bonds. The energy is temporarily stored in the bonds of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ADP + P i + energy → ATP This process requires oxygen in aerobic organisms. Anaerobic organisms do not require oxygen, but produce much less ATP per glucose molecule. Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria . Prokaryotes do not have mitochondria....
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