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Unformatted text preview: may be metal ions such as magnesium (Mg ++ ), potassium (K + ), and calcium (Ca ++ ). The cofactors bind to the enzyme and participate in the reaction by removing electrons, protons , or chemical groups from the substrate . Cofactors that are organic molecules are coenzymes . In oxidation-reduction reactions , coenzymes often remove electrons from the substrate and pass them to other molecules. Often the electron is added to a proton to form a hydrogen atom before it is passed. In this way, coenzymes serve to carry energy in the form of electrons (or hydrogen atoms) from one compound to another. Vitamins are small organic molecules required in trace amounts. They usually act as coenzymes or precursors to coenzymes....
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