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Unformatted text preview: are removed by NAD + forming 2 NADH (see diagram). Additional phosphorylation results in intermediate 3-carbon molecules with 2 phosphate groups. Four ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation . Recall that substrate-level phosphorylation is the production of ATP using energy from other high-energy compounds but without the use of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. The net yield of ATP in glycolysis is 2 for each glucose molecule (2 are used but 4 are produced). Some bacteria have alternative energy-producing reactions. Two of these are the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway....
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