Review of Electron Carriers - are removed by NAD forming 2...

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Review of Electron Carriers NAD + + 2H NADH + H + FAD + 2H FADH 2 Glycolysis During glycolysis, glucose (C 6 ) is broken down to two molecules of pyruvate (C 3 ). (Note that compounds that end in "___ate" can be called "___ic acid". For example, lactate is lactic acid and malate is malic acid.) Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm ( cytosol ) and does not require oxygen. There are ten steps in glycolysis and each one is catalyzed by a specific enzyme. A brief summary of these reactions is presented here. 2 ATP molecules are used to phosphorylate and activate compounds that will eventually become converted to pyruvate (or pyruvic acid ) (see diagram below). Two hydrogen atoms
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Unformatted text preview: are removed by NAD + forming 2 NADH (see diagram). Additional phosphorylation results in intermediate 3-carbon molecules with 2 phosphate groups. Four ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation . Recall that substrate-level phosphorylation is the production of ATP using energy from other high-energy compounds but without the use of the electron transport system in the mitochondria. The net yield of ATP in glycolysis is 2 for each glucose molecule (2 are used but 4 are produced). Some bacteria have alternative energy-producing reactions. Two of these are the pentose phosphate pathway and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway....
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